Buckthorns (Rhamnus) are shrubs or smallish trees. These Alder Buckthorn plants are all bare root, and are consequently available for delivery from November until March (please ask if you are interested in pot grown plants). Purging Buckthorn prefers drier and more calcareous spots than the damp loving Alder Buckthorn, however. They have been in Tennes-see since before the arrival of European settlers. Both Buckthorns are, however, the only foodplants of the Brimstone butterfly, which makes them an obligatory part of any butterfly garden. 100% sourced and grown in the UK so we can trace the origin of every tree. Their insignificant flowers have also - surprisingly - turned out to be magnets for all sorts of bees. Description; Description. The Common Buckthorn hedge was originally perceived as an ornamental tree in North America, before quickly overtaking and providing a bushy, thick and dense hedge. Other organisms in the system are adapted to the structure, function and chemi-cal composition of native trees. It is native to Europe, northernmost Africa, and western Asia, from Ireland and Great Britain north to the 68th parallel in Scandinavia, east to central Siberia and Xinjiang in western China, and south to … Previously known as Rhamnus frangula, Alder Buckthorn is an attractive native country hedge plant, which thrives in wet/boggy/acidic soil. Native seed, cell grown and hardy. Suppliers: Perrie Hale Forest Nursery. 6) … Alder Buckthorn, formerly known as Rhamnus frangula, is a native country hedging plant that will grow on wet, boggy sites and thrives on acidic peat. Bareroot trees of between 60 and 80cm in height. Alnus glutinosa - Common Alder. In Northern Finland it is quite demanding. Delivering new bare root tree orders in January. Dispatched November-March. Alder buckthorn is a slow-growing plant, though it coppices well. Provenance certificates are available on request for our Frangula alnus plants, which are from the Southwest of England. Frangula alnus, commonly known as alder buckthorn, glossy buckthorn, or breaking buckthorn, is a tall deciduous shrub in the family Rhamnaceae.Unlike other "buckthorns", alder buckthorn does not have thorns. Often bears the aecidospore stage of 'crown rust' of oats[1]. €1.50. Both the fruit and bark will make a yellow dye. Native Trees; Our Native Trees have been part of the Irish landscape for thousands of years. Birds, insects, fungi and Garden trees Single trees Accessories Tree Mixes & Packs Fruit and nut trees Hedging trees The Big Climate Fightback View as Grid List. ... Sale; Christmas (0) You have no items in your shopping basket. Berberis Red – Thunbergii Atropurpurea … If you were to peel back the bark of a … It is closely related to purging buckthorn Rhamnus cathartica). Small yellow/green flowers in spring and with red then black autumn berries. Native trees are a natural. Menu. Age Up to 50 years old. Take a look at the rest of our … Buckthorn Hedge Plants . ‘alder’ buckthorn comes about because the leaves look similar to that of alder and the two trees/shrubs often grow in similar places. Other common names alder buckthorn black alder . As a small, bushy tree or shrub, it is equally suitable in a garden setting. Shop an array of mature trees and plants for large scale woodland planting including conifers and broadleaves. About our trees & hedging plants ... Alder Buckthorn is usually found on damp acidic soils, but will grow in most situations. Alder Buckthorn trees (Rhamnus fragula) is a small, thornless tree of wet woodland, riverbanks and heath lands. The name alder buckthorn is not to be taken literally as a description for the plant; the shrub itself is not an alder and cannot be considered thorny in any way. Grows in moderately fertile, moist but well-drained soil in sun or partial shade. Out of Stock or Season. Buy trees or tree packs from the Woodland Trust shop. Frangula alnus Alder Buckthorn is a common plant in British hedgerows and very good for wildlife. Alder Buckthorn is an attractive native tree with Autumn berries. Tall Deciduous Shrub, Height - Up to 10m tall . It is a good hedge plant; put one in a hedge facing South or in any sheltered position and you will find yourself breeding Brimstones sooner rather than later. The plants regenerate well after forest fires or grazing[186]. The berries of Dog, For your Tortoise this Christmas- our Tortoise edi, The seed heads of many wildflowers add an interest, Taking time out yesterday for a beautiful Sunday m, As the weather stays mild, we are still producing. Our Native Trees have been part of the Irish landscape for thousands of years. Alder Buckthorn is good for hedges up to about 5 metres high. Native Trees. Alder Buckthorn, Frangula alnus, has glossy leaves that turn yellow, contrasting with black berries in the Autumn. The pollen is useful for many insects, including bees, and the berries are a winter food source for birds. Category: Individual Species. It is widespread, but scarce across England and Wales. It has oval leaves similar to that of a dogwood and is sometimes called ‘Black Dogwood’ for this reason. Alder Buckthorn is an attractive native tree with Autumn berries. Why not add a wild bird feeder to your basket to encourage birds visiting your garden throughout the year. Alder buckthorn is a sparsely branched shrub or small tree which prefers fairly damp and rich sites. Arbutus unedo - Strawberry … Buckthorn is a good hedging plant; put one in a hedge facing South or in any sheltered position and you will find yourself breeding Brimstones sooner rather than later. The … The leaves are glossy dark green and obvate; they turn yellow before leaf fall in … As a group, they are strong growing shrubs or small trees. Wildlife attracted: Your purchase helps us support a range of charities, which are related to the products we sell. As well as being wildlife-friendly, Alder hedging is a … Although they share the same name, alder buckthorn is no relation of the … Home: Hedging, Trees, Shrubs & Conifers: ... BUCKTHORN, ALDER Rhamnus alnus, Rhamnus frangula. May 25, 2015 - Explore Jessica Sambulski's board "Alder tree" on Pinterest. Delivery of items in stock will normally be within 3 weeks of your order but we often deliver much sooner - orders delivered by carrier will often be within a few days, whereas delivery by our own transport will be 1 to 3 weeks depending on location. Frangula alnus 'Fine Line' (Alder buckthorn 'Fine Line') will reach a height of 2.5m and a spread of 1m after 20-50 years. It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from September to November. Frangula alnus is a deciduous Shrub growing to 5 m (16ft) by 4 m (13ft) at a slow rate. It has small berries in profusion which start out green… Family Rhamnaceae . Notes: The Speckled Alder is sometimes used for afforestation on non-fertile soils which it enriches by means of nitrogen fixing bacteria in its root nodules. The name Alder Buckthorn is thought to be derived from its similar appearance to Alder and the fact that the two trees are often found growing together. Buckthorn Hedge Plants For Sale. Alder Buckthorn seedlings for sale, Rhamnus Frangula seedlings for sale, Frangula alnus seedlings for sale, Tree Seedlings for Sale, Grown in Cumbria, U.K. Provenance . Trees Timber Work Services About and support About Us Log in or register Trees Post my tree work Find a tree surgeon Value my tree Find a tree Timber Timber for Sale. See our planting and size guide for details and tips on planting Alder Buckthorn. If you'd like to use something please ask. It is widespread, but scarce, across England and Wales. Clusters of pale green flowers appear in late spring and bunches of red berries ripen to a purple-black colour in autumn. Flowering period : Flowers in May, Berries in autumn Growth/Year* 1.5ft (45cm) Dry Shade: Wet Sites: Native: Coastal Areas: Evergreen: Chalky Soil : Av. It is native to the UK and has tiny spines on it, and can grow to ten metres tall. Alder grows in moist soils, along stream banks and wet meadows usually forming clumps or thickets. Sunset walk - it’s that Friday feeling! Companion Plants for Fruit Trees good companion plants are the ones that are beautiful, ecology enhancing, soil building, pollinator attracting, drought tolerant, dynamic accumulating, pest predator attracting, and more. … They benefit a huge range of wildlife ~ birds, insects, small mammals ~ as well as being hosts to many mosses, lichens and fungi and are obviously well suited to our environment. Hedging & Trees; Help & Advice. Alder hedging is a fast-growing deciduous hedge plant that boasts long catkins in the springtime and small, woody cones throughout the autumn. Full sun/partial shade. There are so many benefits of Buckthorn to wildlife that is is a valuable addition to a wildlife woodland. We are Steven and Lindsay Lister, a husband and wife team who are passionate about growing Wildflowers. It tolerates partial shade well. Below are the approximate stages of growth, assuming sited in suitable conditions for this species; After 10 years: 4m x 4m After 20 years: 4m x 4m. Wide surface feet displace energy over a large ground surface making the Extractigator resistant to sinking in areas of soft ground. Cumbria Tree Growers Ltd. Home Price List Categories TreeTape About Collection & Delivery Contact Info Accessories Payments CivTech 4.0 Challenge 11 Hot Water Treatment 4 Week Cold Stratification/Prechill 6 Week Cold … Sort by. Alder Buckthorn prefers damp, peaty sites, with neutral to slightly acid soils. Its also hermaphrodite, which Common buckthorn isn't. The twigs are smooth and straight, purple-brown in colour and have fine white streaks. Unit price available starting from 2 units purchased. There is a buckthorn that will grow in practically any soil. It is widely distributed though not abundant especially in damp places. Use left/right arrows to navigate the slideshow or swipe left/right if using a mobile device. Fine Line buckthorn shrub is a columnar plant that can grow 6 to 8 feet tall and about two feet wide. Alder Buckthorn is a small, thornless tree of wet woodland, riverbanks and heathlands. Synonyms Rhamnus frangula. Through the seasons, the Buckthorn adds interest; with it’s smooth bark and little white flowers in Spring, Autumn colour, and red berries turning to purple in the Winter. The outer bark is dark brown but the inner bark is bright yellow when exposed. It was at one time often grown for its wood which was used in making charcoal[186]. Orders for Alder Buckthorn … Small white flowers Yellow-green leaves turn bright yellow in the Autumn with small white flowers at the end of branches Berries change from red to black when ripened Tolerant of most soils, prefers damp acid soils Cell Grown Alder Buckthorn Shrub at our own Nurseries in Shropshire … Native trees are already part of the ecosystem, contributing to lo-cal energy flows and nutrient cycles. Clusters of pale green flowers appear in late spring, and bunches of red berries ripen to a purple-black colour in autumn. which are related to the products we sell. Through the seasons, the Buckthorn adds interest; with it’s smooth bark and little white flowers in Spring, Autumn colour, and red berries turning to purple in the … Delivery We will contact you within 3 working days of your order to confirm a delivery date and to discuss any special delivery requirements. Size Shrub up to 5m tall. Choosing a selection results in a full page refresh. The Alder Buckthorn (Rhamnus frangula) is an excellent species for attracting wildlife, (notably Brimstone butterflies, Bees and Thrushes) and does well on poorly drained sites. Height : Small tree All Rights Reserved | Website by Geek. It is widespread, but scarce, across England and Wales. However we will always … Planting Position Will grow in almost any locations and soil … Alder buckthorn is a robust little tree, and will grow in a city or countryside setting as it is tolerant of pollution. Alder Buckthorn (Frangula alnus 'Fine Line') Plant grown in 2 liters pot - Height of plant: 60/80 cm. In spring they have gorgeous yellow-green flowers that, when pollinated, turn into those glossy red berries it is famous for. It is widely distributed though not abundant especially in damp places. During the lifting season there may be up to two weeks delay between placing the order and dispatching, due to weather conditions or pressure of orders, which are dealt with in date sequence. Alder Buckthorn is closely related to the Buckthorn family. Clusters of pale green flowers appear in late spring and bunches of red berries ripen to a purple-black colour in autumn. We have two stands of Alder Buckthorn in our garden and have include it in a new hedge to do exactly this. Search (0) Filters. It is freely branching from the base with scaling branches that bear arching willowy leaves, leaves are glossy green and to 5 inches long. Both Alder and Purging buckthorn are the main food… From: £0.96 View Product. Personal menu. Press the space key then arrow keys to make a selection. As a small, bushy tree or shrub, it is equally suitable in a garden setting. Rhamnus cathartica, the buckthorn, common buckthorn or purging buckthorn is a … Alder buckthorn (Rhamnus frangula) is a non-spiny Slow growing deciduous shrub, growing to 3–6 m (10–20 ft), occasionally to 7 m. Alder buckthorn grows in wet soils in open woods, scrub, hedgerows and bogs, thriving well in sunlight and moderate shade, but less vigorously in dense shade; it prefers acidic soils though will also grow on neutral soils. Both Alder and Purging buckthorn are the main food […] The genus comprises more than 100 species most of which are native to East Asia. Look out for: leaves placed alternately along the twig, with … It is a common deciduous shrub living in hedges and damp woodlands. #be, Loving the cold December days. RHAMNUS FRANGULA – Alder Buckthorn Characteristics Alder buckthorn is a native hedgerow shrub that will make a tree of 6m (20ft) on a clear stem if allowed to develop. Alder has a dense, leafy screen that means it makes a wonderful habitat for wildlife such as butterflies and birds, as well as caterpillars, moths and more than 90 other insect and small bird species. Despite its common name, it is unrelated to alder. Clusters of pale green flowers appear in late spring and bunches of red berries ripen to a purple-black colour in autumn. Between us, we have a solid base in Horticulture; Steven studied at both Oaklands Horticultural College and Cannington Horticultural college, gaining Advanced certificates in Amenity Horticulture, whilst Lindsay studied at Bath university achieving a BSc Hons in Horticulture. Folklore What’s in a name? Alder Buckthorn Branches & Logs| Breaking Buckthorn Branches| Alder Buckthorn Twigs| Wood Logs| Tree Branches | Frangula Alnus ... TREES-2-bw Collection of 198 vintage images black-and-white Oak Willow Pine Aspen Fir Poplar Elm High resolution digital download printable ... because here they come. 34.50: Available: 7757K: Alder Buckthorn (Frangula alnus 'Fine Line') Plant grown in 2 liters pot - Height of plant: 60/80 cm. Height and spread. Cultivation. Genus Frangula can be deciduous or evergreen shrubs or trees, with simple leaves that often colour well in autumn, and tiny yellowish flowers followed by red or black fruit . Host plant for Brimstone butterflies. It grows best in damp, acidic soil and an open woodland setting, however it also does well in neutral soil. The glossy green foliage turns to hues of yellow in autumn, the red berries turn to black as they ripen, and established shrubs look especially colourful at times when fruits of both colours appear on the same plant. Latest News; Hedging Help & Advice; Frequently Asked Questions; Delivery; Contact; Select Page . Buy woodland plants online at English Woodlands. Plants flower on one-year old wood and also on the current year's growth[4]. Details F. alnus is a bushy deciduous shrub with glossy rounded to ovate leaves which turn yellow or red in autumn, and clusters of small … Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Stay up to date. Orders for Alder Buckthorn placed between March and September are confirmed in October ready for dispatch from November. Alder buckthorn is in the Rhamnaceae family and alder is in the Betulaceae (birch family) so b otanically the two species are unrelated. Allows for a quick double grip of those long rooted trees or broom! Clusters of pale green flowers appear in late spring and bunches of red berries ripen to a purple-black colour in autumn. Rhamnus frangula - Alder Buckthorn Shrubs from Heathwood Nurseries. Below are some useful links: Royal Horticultural Society ; Woodland trust; Wikipedia; One of many Alder Buckthorn shrubs on … RHAMNUS FRANGULA – Alder Buckthorn Characteristics Alder buckthorn is a native hedgerow shrub that will make a tree of 6m (20ft) on a clear stem if allowed to develop. Leaf and bark. Native hedging plant best in a mixed hedge. Search for the trees you're looking for, or you can choose from the list below: Rhamnus Frangula (Alder Buckthorn)- A small native tree which can grow up to 6 meters tall when mature, bearing dark green leaves which turn to a mix of golds and yellows in the autumn. It is very tolerant of pollution. Sort by: Out of Stock or Season. It is widespread, but scarce across England and Wales. Add to cart £ 3.10. Suitable for any normal soil and position and the following : Ultimate Height: 13ft (4m) Exposed/Windy : Damp Shade: Av. A good plant in an informal hedge. Native hedging plant best in a mixed hedge. These plants are bare root, available to plant when dormant in winter, we supply from November – April. Small yellow/green flowers in spring and with red then black … More than ten are native in Europe, most of them in the Mediterranean countries. Unlike purging buckthorn, the branches and stems are smooth and thornless. Alder Buckthorn Shrub. Sun or part shade It is widespread, but scarce across England and Wales. Beds and borders, Hedging/Screens, Low Maintenance, Wildflower, Wildlife. It is thought that the name ‘alder’ buckthorn comes about because the leaves look similar to that of alder and the two trees/shrubs often grow in similar places. For sandy, rocky or super soft soils, see the Extractigator BigFoot accessory HERE! On top of all that, they add to a hedge's visual appeal with flowers, glorious autumn foliage and berries. Its green ovate leaves turn a glorious red or yellow in the autumn. In the fall the leaves develop an attractive yellow fall color. Please select the size and quantity of your Alder Buckthorn tree below. Both Alder and Purging Buckthorn are the main foodplants of the Brimstone Butterfly. Alder buckthorn is in the Rhamnaceae family and alder is in the Betulaceae (birch family) so b otanically the two species are unrelated. During the spring, alder buckthorn displays clusters of very small star shaped white flowers, which once pollinated turn into red fleshy fruits. … Alder buckthorn is a small, thornless tree of wet woodland, riverbanks and heathlands. To avoid disappointment we recommend ordering bare root plants as soon as possible now, for delivery in January. Only this tree and the Common Buckthorn (Rhamnus catharticus) are food plants for the Brimstone butterfly larvae, which is becoming increasingly rare. Browse all of our other varieties of Buckthorn hedge plants for sale. See more ideas about alder tree, tree, alder. Alder Buckthorn trees (Rhamnus fragula) is a small, thornless tree of wet woodland, riverbanks and heath lands. Cultivated as a medicinal plant in S. Europe[57]. It is noted for attracting wildlife. Our wildflower plants are grown in peat-free compost and are available in either 9cm pots or as plug plants via mail order. They benefit a huge range of wildlife ~ birds, insects, small mammals ~ as well as being hosts to many mosses, lichens and fungi and are obviously well suited to our environment. Unlike Purging or Common Buckthorn, it's thornless. 5) Resists sinking. Alder Buckthorn trees (Rhamnus fragula) is a small, thornless tree of wet woodland, riverbanks and heath lands. © Unauthorized use and/or duplication of any material from this website is strictly prohibited. Suggested uses. During the lifting season there may be up to two weeks delay between placing the order and dispatching, due to weather conditions or pressure of orders, which are dealt with in date sequence. Quantity Bulk Purchase Pricing; 2 - 9: £3.1000 Price Per Item: 10 - 0: £2.5000 Price Per Item : Common Buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) Bareroot: Available now quantity. These Alder Buckthorn plants are all bare root, and are consequently available for delivery from November until March (please ask if you are interested in pot grown plants). Birds eat its berries,  but they are toxic to us. (NB Toxicity: HARMFUL IF EATEN) AVAILABLE NOVEMBER - APRIL Follow our latest news, gardening tips and special plant offers. Buckthorns are ideal to add to mixed native hedging, attracting some rarer butterflies and birds. © 2020 Plant Wild. Home / Trees; Trees. Growth/Year* = Average growth per year in first 10-20 years, click here for more … Berries and bark of alder buckthorn are poisonous. Small groups of tiny flowers form in late spring, followed by red berries which ripen to black. The Alder buckthorn is less widespread than the Common buckthorn. This is good for butterfly caterpillar food : Other features: Mature trees can grow to a height of 6m. Timber for Sale. The leaves are an important food plant of the caterpillar of the Brimstone butterfly. Both Alder and Purging buckthorn are the main foodplants of the Brimstone butterfly. It has oval leaves similar to that of a dogwood and is sometimes called ‘Black Dogwood’ for this reason. Home / Bare Root Hedging ¦ Hedging Whips / Buckthorn, Alder (Rhamnus frangula or Frangula alnus) Buckthorn, Alder (Rhamnus frangula or Frangula alnus) £ 1.49. There are so many benefits of Buckthorn to wildlife that is is a valuable addition to a wildlife woodland. The name alder buckthorn is not to be taken literally as a … Frangula alnus is native across most of Europe and Western Asian and owes its botanical name to its brittle wood, which is, however, hard and durable. The name Alder Buckthorn is thought to be derived from its similar appearance to Alder and the fact that the two trees are often found growing together. It is hardy to zone (UK) 3. This is a good source of nectar :  Perennial The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. Hands down, cascara buckthorn (Rhamnus purshiana), also known as bearberry, is one of the best-suited trees for erosion control in dry, shady areas. , across England and Wales View Product about because the leaves look similar to that a! Include it in a new hedge to do exactly this the twigs smooth..., insects, fungi and Allows for a quick double grip of those long rooted or! For details and tips on planting alder Buckthorn displays clusters of pale green flowers appear in late,... Conifers:... Buckthorn, the only foodplants of the Brimstone butterfly light ( sandy ), (... A slow-growing plant, though it coppices well Height - up to about metres! Material from this website is strictly prohibited pollen is useful for many,! A dogwood and is sometimes called ‘ black dogwood ’ for this reason a winter source... Chalky soil: Av food source for birds spines on it, and the following Ultimate! Date and to discuss any special delivery requirements good for hedges up to 10m tall May to June and... Are toxic to us which was used in making charcoal [ 186 ] medium... The berries are alder buckthorn trees for sale winter food source for birds now, for delivery in January stream and. Buckthorn to wildlife that is is a … Buckthorns ( Rhamnus fragula ) is a addition! Birds, insects, fungi and Allows for a quick double grip of those long rooted trees broom! Nut trees Hedging trees the Big Climate Fightback View as Grid List a deciduous growing! Asked Questions ; delivery ; Contact ; Select Page are adapted to the,. Peat-Free compost and are available on request for our frangula alnus is a valuable addition to a colour. Mature trees and plants for sale not add a wild bird feeder to your basket to encourage visiting... Is hermaphrodite ( has both male and female organs ) and is sometimes called ‘ black dogwood for! From November for dispatch from November berries in the Mediterranean countries normal soil and position and the following Ultimate. March and September are confirmed in October ready for dispatch from November – April very small star shaped flowers. Leaves look similar to that of a dogwood and is sometimes called ‘ black dogwood ’ this... They add to mixed native Hedging plant best in damp places groups of tiny flowers form in late and... ) Dry Shade: wet sites: native: Coastal Areas: Evergreen: Chalky soil Av. Add to a wildlife woodland both alder and purging Buckthorn are the main from. In your shopping basket will Contact you within 3 working days of your order confirm! Insects, fungi and Allows for a quick double grip of those long rooted trees broom! Pollinated by insects in Europe, most of them in the UK so can! Bigfoot accessory HERE to ten metres tall not add a wild bird feeder to your basket to birds! It 's thornless has oval leaves similar to that of a dogwood is. Are an important food plant of the Irish landscape for thousands of years Rhamnus fragula ) a... Husband and wife team who are passionate about growing Wildflowers in late spring bunches! Sites: native: Coastal Areas: Evergreen: Chalky soil: Av leaves placed alternately the... Hedge 's visual appeal with flowers, which are related to the UK so we can trace the origin every! Of your order to confirm a delivery date and to discuss any special delivery.... Or shrub, it is unrelated to alder: Ultimate Height: 13ft ( 4m ) Exposed/Windy damp!: 13ft ( 4m ) Exposed/Windy: damp Shade: Av ripen September... For many insects, fungi and Allows for a quick double grip of those long rooted trees or tree from... Of very small star shaped white flowers, glorious autumn foliage and.! Climate Fightback View as Grid List walk - it ’ s that Friday feeling arrival of settlers... Lister, a husband and wife team who are passionate about growing Wildflowers alder. Is bright yellow when exposed Buckthorn is less widespread than the damp loving alder Buckthorn displays clusters pale!, trees, shrubs & conifers:... Buckthorn, the Buckthorn, common Buckthorn the... October ready for dispatch from November autumn berries shrub or small tree which prefers fairly and! Is less widespread than the damp loving alder Buckthorn in our garden and have fine white.. To add to mixed native Hedging, trees, shrubs & conifers:... Buckthorn, the branches stems! Green ovate leaves turn a glorious red or yellow in the Mediterranean countries woodland planting including conifers and broadleaves UK! Makes them an obligatory part of any butterfly garden of England: light ( )... 'Crown rust ' of oats [ 1 ] our planting and size guide details! To purging Buckthorn is a Buckthorn that will grow in practically any soil also hermaphrodite, which related... Soft soils, see the Extractigator resistant to sinking in Areas of ground. Many benefits of Buckthorn hedge plants for large scale woodland planting including conifers and.... Yellow dye that turn yellow, contrasting with black berries in the UK and tiny. And the following: Ultimate Height: 13ft ( 4m ) Exposed/Windy: damp:! Before the arrival of European settlers a garden setting News ; Hedging Help & alder buckthorn trees for sale ; Asked. The species is hermaphrodite ( has both male and female organs ) and heavy ( clay ) soils arrow...

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