Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a vigorous warm season, native perennial grass adapted to Wisconsin and planted for many purposes including livestock grazing, wildlife cover, and as a biofuel crop. U.S. and Mexico where the summer days are much shorter, but the growing Switchgrass evolved in The average date of the last spring freeze in southern Oklahoma typically falls between March 22 and March 31. produce seed heads (July in Oklahoma). near neutral (pH 5 to 8) are required for good growth and high Fields can begin being grazed when plants are 10 to 12 inches tall, and should be grazed down to 4 inches within two weeks. Likewise, switchgrass can grow well in the southern Connect with your County Extension Office », Find an Extension employee in our staff directory », Get the latest news and updates on Extension's work around the state, Feedback, questions or accessibility issues: info@extension.wisc.edu | © 2020 The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System Privacy Policy | Non-Discrimination Policy | Discrimination and Harassment Complaints | Disability Accommodation Requests | Civil Rights. switchgrass biomass also removes significant amounts of these compared to introduced grasses, such as bermudagrass, tall fescue, sufficient to maintain switchgrass for a few daysor weeks without Under native conditions it is usually found along creeks, streams and protected areas, but establishment and productivity has been best in fields with loam to sandy loam soils. Selection of the most appropriate method is based on the weed species present and the appropriate density. After seedheads emerge, however, nutritive value declines rapidly, and the plant provides only the minimum maintenance energy needs of ruminants [ 35 ]. Switchgrass is an excellent food source for livestock, and is especially palatable before plants flower, but its quality and palability decline rapidly as it approaches heading. High yields are impossible without If possible plant after no-till soybeans as no-till corn fields have rougher terrain that can make harvesting of biomass difficult. We teach, learn, lead and serve, connecting people with the University of Wisconsin, and engaging with them in transforming lives and communities. Feedback, questions or accessibility issues: © 2020 The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Lowland types, which grow up to 12 feet tall, Providing height, flow and dra… Switchgrass is being promoted for several uses as a biofuel in Wisconsin. Two morphological ecotypes are widely recognized - lowland and upland. Injury has been observed with Certainty, Journey, and Pursuit, but switchgrass seedlings outgrew this injury (see Table 2). fuel. summer each year and individual plant dry weight, tiller num-. If haying, cut at the boot stage leaving 3 to 4 inches of stubble. This should allow for a second cutting in mid-August, leaving enough regrowth to survive the winter. 30 to 40% grass mixed with alfalfa gives equal or higher yields than pure stands of alfalfa The foliage transitions from bright, rich green in the summer months to a golden brown in the fall and winter. storing energy in its crowns, roots, and rhizomes. Several management methods can be utilized for managing weeds while establishing switchgrass. shallow soils are likely to average yields of 1 to 4 tons/acre/year. component of the tallgrass prairie, which covered most of the Great Weedy grasses can also be troublesome as they are much more difficult to control without injuring switchgrass seedlings. It is difficult to predict switchgrass growth rate and to stock it to maintain 8 to 16 inches of stubble. development of a renewable feedstock source to produce transportation reasonable yields because it serves to store water and nutrients. The suggested seeding rate is 6 to 7 pounds of pure live seed when close drilled (8 inches or less between rows) or broadcasted. In the vegetative phase, shoots consist predominantly of leaf blades. upland sites with shallow soils and in creek and river bottoms with tend to grow slowly in the late summer due to shortening day length, nutrients. Plains. Switchgrass naturally spans throughout much of the U.S. east of the Rocky Mountains. plants to fully develop. Some switchgrass ecotypes while those from the south usually grow longer into the autumn; thus, The work will require • Summer hay production – Since switchgrass is a warm-season grass, it is adapted to hot, summer conditions. Switchgrass, along with relatively deep soil with a pH level near neutral that can supply the Current research shows that spring is the best time to plant switchgrass in Oklahoma. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Switchgrass in early growth stages is nutritious. the soil is only one foot deep, the available water will only be ... For haying followed by grazing, cut in the boot stage leaving a 3- to 4-inch stubble. This mismanagement weakened the stands and eventually led to their demise. It is a natural Legumes emerge... Vegetative: leaves continue to develop, emerge, unfurl, and die (senescence). The panicles are pyramid shaped with many purplish spikelets. grass was grown under good conditions. Planting is recommended on a firm, well prepared seedbed at a depth of 1/2 to 3/4 inch. Switchgrass shows stronger vegetative growth at the beginning stages of growth to supply sufficient nutrition for the reproductive-floral development and seeds development and ripening. If not harvested, tolerant of poor soil, droughty, and fl ooded conditions, it does have Likewise, switchgrass can grow well in the southern U.S. and Mexico where the summer days are much shorter, but the growing season may last six to eight months. Livestock: Switchgrass is noted for its heavy growth during late spring and early summer. Switchgrass is a tall-growing, warm-season, perennial grass that is native to much of the United States including Virginia. A single late-season harvest at the mature-seed or post-frost senescence stage … If a broadleaf herbicide is used, wait until switchgrass plants have at least 3-4 leaves (or are 3-4 inches tall) before application to avoid injury. Upland types growing in Graze lightly from August until Sept. 1 leaving 8 inches of … Most switchgrass biomass yield trials have focused on batch harvests to ascertain accumulated growth in one-cut (usually end of season) or two-cut (mid-summer plus end-of-season) systems (Sanderson et al., 1996). westward to the Rocky Mountains, as far south as Mexico, and northward Copyright 2009, UW Extension. After extensive evaluations of many plant species in areas. Upland types are generally octoploid and lowland In most grasslands, the two factors that most limit growth are moisture (rain) and N. There is not much we can do about the weather; however, we can manage N to improve productivity on pastures. yields in the south can be expected to be higher than in northern growth of the plants. Adapted lowland switchgrass For more information, contact UW Extension Weed Scientist Mark Renz, mrenz@wisc.edu. Please note that Journey can only be applied pre-emergent and atrazine is not registered for use in switchgrass in Wisconsin. Burning fields once every 3 to 5 years decreases weed competition, eliminates excessive residue and stimulates switch grass growth. If mowing, leave at least 6 inches of stubble. breaking dormancy (March in Oklahoma) and slows when it begins to While these herbicides are registered for applications at various times, best results have been seen with pre-emergent applications. Switchgrass is one of the easiest forms of wildlife cover to plant and if planted correctly, switchgrass can be fully established after only 2 Summers of growth! Switchgrass has high yield potential on marginal cropland and will be productive in most rain-fed production systems east of the 100th meridian (Vogel, 2004). Alfalfa grass mixtures provide stand and yield over broader range of environmental conditions. At the junction of the leaf blade and leaf sheath the ligule is a dense ring or cup of hairs on the upper leaf surface. At full maturity, switchgrass can reach a height between 5 and 6 feet tall and, while it is technically a bunch grass, it also spreads by seed drop and underground rhizomes. Switchgrass will germinate at soil temperatures of 50°F, although seedling growth is best when air temperatures reach 75°F to 85°F. Each growth stage consists of a primary and secondary stage and has both a mnemonic code and numerical index associated with it. Temperatures must be relatively warm during the yields. Leaf blade collars remain nested in the base of the shoot and there is no evidence of sheath elongation or culm development. Since switchgrass is a bunchgrass and not a sod-former, the most sustainable use is via rotational stocking. As a component of rangeland, switchgrass yields are closely Switchgrass is also used extensively as grass filter strips for erosion control, flood management, and reduction of nutrient loading of waterways. Switchgrass is used for pasture and makes a good quality hay when mowed prior to seedhead formation. by Mark Renz, Dan Undersander, and Mike Casler. Part of the mineral nutrition and other nutrient substances flow back into the root or rhizome for better wintering after the sexual reproduction finished. Yanqi Wu, PhD.Plant Breeding and Genetics (Grasses)368 Ag HallOklahoma State UniversityPlant and Soil SciencesStillwater, OK 74078-6028, Phone: (405)-744-9627FAX (405) 744-0354yanqi.wu@okstate.edu. switchgrass spends the rest of the growing season developing seed and The final grazing should be on or before August 15th in southern Wisconsin and August 1st in the central and northern part of the state. Even though switchgrass is There are several switchgrass varieties to choose from and its high tolerance for different planting sites makes ornamental switchgrass a great choice for any landscape. An extremely acidic or alkaline soil may be toxic and In general, sites with extensive perennial grass infestations (e.g. Nitrogen deficiency in pastures is common. It should not be grazed closer than 5 to 7 inches during the growing season. This means it possesses mechanisms that allow it to Mead, ND. With the longer growing season in the southern latitudes, biomass chromosome sets). need to be replenished. When temperatures are below 60° F or We conducted a two-year precipitation simulation experiment using large pots (95 L) in an environmentally controlled greenhouse in Nashville, TN. This form needs Javascript to display, which your browser doesn’t support. by Dan Undersander If When harvesting switchgrass for hay, the first cutting occurs at the late boot stage – around mid-June. slightly different from the others, but all belong to the same species. and varieties can grow well in the northern U.S. and in Canada where However, high yields of switchgrass cannot be sustained if 8 tons/acre under commercial conditions. switchgrass This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. needed to remain alive during its dormant period in the winter and for Grass may not suffer winterkill. Switchgrass begins growth 2 to 3 weeks earlier than big bluestem, which is about a week earlier than indiangrass (Figure 1). Three kinds of roots develop in grasses; primary, secondary and hair roots. Any new growth must come from the crown of the plant. This delay in application has resulted in reduced establishment and productivity compared to pre-emergent applications. Cold winters, hot summers, and day length are the most important of these environmental factors, all of which vary according to latitude. Switchgrass grows rapidly after many years of research and development. warm-season perennial grasses native to North America. sured. all. regrowth the next spring. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) with its advantages of low maintenance and massive distribution in temperate zones, has long been regarded as a suitable biofuel feedstock with a promising prospect. warm temperatures for growth. Stages Seedling: the grass plant has just emerged from the soil as a monocotyledon (one leaf-type structure). While switchgrass is a good forage for livestock, its persistence decreases with overgrazing, similar to other warm season pasture grasses, therefore fields must be managed carefully. This factsheet was produced by UW Extension in cooperation with Southwest Badger Resource Conservation & Development Council, Inc., USDA-Natural Resource Conservation Service, and Better Environmental Solutions. nutrients needed for growth. conditions. This can be done with repeated cultivations and/or burndown herbicide applications before planting switchgrass. additional rain or irrigation. Switchgrass (SG) was widespread in open areas before settlers populated an area and remained in one place year after year. multiple locations, switchgrass was selected in 1991 by the U.S. tolerate cold temperatures during winter as dormant plants, but needs the south to finish its vegetative growth stage. Three-year yield averages for common varieties adapted to the north central United States across several locations are summarized in Table 1. adequate N and other nutrients are not applied because removing the Switchgrass varieties/ecotypes vary widely in their adaptation to environmental conditions. warm-season grass. Switchgrass is a perennial warm-season (C4) grass that is native to most of North America except for areas west of the Rocky Mountains and north of 55°N latitude (Figure 1). into Canada. This energy is Switchgrass should be planted in the spring after soil temperature is above 60°F. Erosion Control: Switchgrass is perhaps our most valuable native grass on a wide range of sites. No-till planting of switchgrass has also been successful in Wisconsin. Switchgrass can grow more than 10 feet tall, and well-managed stands may last for decades. It grows 3 to 6 feet in small to large sodded clumps that spread slowly from numerous scaly creeping rhizomes. It needs at least one month in Plants Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is an upright prairie grass that produces feathery delicate flowers from July to September. Whether growth is from a seed or an established plant, the minimum soil temperature for root growth of cool season grasses is 40-420 F., and 60 to 650 F for warm season grasses. Annual broadleaf weeds are common in the establishment year and if populations are dense, establishment can be reduced. It is common in Midwest prairies and is widespread in savannas of the Eastern United States. It can be seen as you drive down the highway at 70 mph. varieties, suited to the southern U.S., frequently produce more than 10 switchgrass is planted primar-ily for biofuels production, there is potential to harvest the early growth through hay-ing or grazing, then managing the remainder of the season’s growth for the biofuels feed-stock market. However, such precipitation effects on switchgrass, a major bioenergy crop, have not been well investigated. areas and in shallow soils. The leaves have a bluish cast and can attain a length of 2 feet. An EEO/AA employer, University of Wisconsin-Madison Division of Extension provides equal opportunities in employment and programming, including Title VI, Title IX, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act requirements. related to its growing conditions and are much lower in low rainfall Thus, an easier method of managing switchgrass is to begin grazing when the grass is 10 to 12 inches tall (early to mid-June) and stock heavily for two to three weeks until there is … deep soils – and as a consequence has many ecotypes. growing season, and the growing season must be long enough for the Suffer less traffic, Nitrogen Management for Grass Pastures The research experiments will be conducted on a Bonneau sand, Norfolk loamy sand, and Rains sandy loam. Switchgrass has relatively small seed averaging approximately 370,000 seeds per pound. latitude where a particular switchgrass evolved. Department of Energy as a model herbaceous energy crop for the Water must be available either through by Greg Cuomo, University of Minnesota/West Central Research and Outreach Center Some have called switchgrass a “niche grass” since it may be best used as: (1) an early grazing forage (usually 2–4 weeks earlier growth than bermudagrass); and (2) a summer-fall deferred grass for stockpiling use. They were replaced by cool-s… Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a vigorous warm season, native perennial grass adapted to Wisconsin and planted for many purposes including livestock grazing, wildlife cover, and as a biofuel crop.Switchgrass begins growth in late spring and continues through the summer if moisture is available. High yields for all crops are dependent on good moisture may hold nutrients in forms that are unavailable to switchgrass. the growing seasons are relatively short (2 months), but days are long Switchgrass begins growth in late spring and continues through the summer if moisture is available. Productive switchgrass stands can be grown west of the 100th meridi… (Read more) can remain alive at these temperatures, but they grow slowly, if at Switchgrass is a Learning how to plant switchgrass by either frost seeding or using a no till drill, will offer you 2 sure-fire ways … It provides good warm-season pasture and high quality hay for livestock. Be sure to read the label carefully for application rates and stages of growth. Another variation has to do with the several years. Regrowth potential following grazing for tall, upright plants, such as switchgrass, is low. Alfalfa Grass Mixtures in Dairy Rations cross-pollinated species and has two common ploidy levels (number of Upland types usually grow four to five feet tall and are adapted to rainfall or irrigation. High switchgrass yields have been recorded when the Some herbicides that are recommended for use on switchgrass have very low rate tolerance, applying too much material or applying it at the wrong time can cause serious injury to the switchgrass seedling. If possible, reduce the weed populations as much as possible before planting. These weeds can be controlled with timely mowing and/or the use of a labeled broadleaf herbicide (see Table 2). Plants were harvested in late. Project Methods Switchgrass (cv. wheat, etc. tons/acre/year of dry matter, but it is more reasonable to expect 5 to during the summer. Initial harvest date, switchgrass growth stage at each biomass above a 10-cm cutting height that had accumulated date, and numerical index scores for each growth stage for during the establishment year was removed. This is because the growing points are easily removed. relatively shallow soils. Because of this, switchgrass varieties/ecotypes should be moved no more than one hardiness zone from their origin. The codes were designed to be easily memorized and are useful for applying the system in the field. Harvesting two-three weeks after the first frost will allow the plant to recycle nutrients and likely reduce future fertilization as well as drying costs. adequate water. For biofuel production, fields are recommended to be harvested once per year in the late summer – winter. Graze regrowth to no shorter than 8 inches. Soil moisture tensions below –45 kPa reduced switchgrass. It is also found on prairie soils from the southeastern U.S., Their livestock were free roaming and would graze the new switchgrass growth in the spring before the new plants were tall enough to withstand defoliation. It is a Accessibility | Safety | Legal and Trademarks | Campus Map | Sitemap | Webmaster, College of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources, College of Human & Environmental Sciences, Ag Education, Communications & Leadership. Switchgrass is a highly variable species, and if more were known about its growth, possibly selec- tions could be made that would make useful additions to the forage resources. These good conditions include a To sustain production, the nutrients removed from the soil Switchgrass provides excellent habitat for wildlife when used exclusively or in combination with other plant species. are typically found on deep soils. Grass remains in low spots were water stands. Those from the north Once fields are established it is not expected that additional weed management will be necessary. other native species, is generally nonresponsive to applied nutrients It needs at le… Sunburst originates within hardiness zone 4 and Cave-in-Rock originates within hardiness zone 5. Benefits of mixing grass with alfalfa: to expensive, imported fuel,” much work remains. Some switchgrass ecotypes and varieties can grow well in the northern U.S. and in Canada where the growing seasons are relatively short (2 months), but days are long during the summer. Once switchgrass is established, its bunch-type growth habit makes it very competitive with weeds; however, it is not considered invasive. The lush, dark green growth that surrounds dung piles in many pastures is an ind. Better yield in later years if alfalfa injured by winter, insects, disease. certain needs to produce economical biomass yields and persist for Growing roundup ready crops year(s) prior to establishment of switchgrass is also effective in reducing weed populations, especially perennial weeds. Switchgrass grows 3 to 10 feet tall, typically as a bunchgrass, but the short rhizomes can form a sod over time. Restoring prairies can reduce runoff and reduce floods. Alamo) was planted in the spring of 2007 across a 5.6-ha field at the Pee Dee Research and Education Center located near Florence, SC. The numerical index is included so that the stages … Soils Switchgrass will benefit from burning of plant residues just prior to initiation of spring growth. Both are well adapted to the north central USA, with excellent tolerance to cold winters and relatively high biomass yield. Due to this, switchgrass should not be grazed or cut during the seeding year unless weed density is high or growth is exceptional. Improved yield in seeding year. The vertical growth habit of switchgrass provides beneficial cover for many upland birds that allows for quality nesting sites and protection from predators. It may be possible to use switchgrass as a forage crop early in the season and use the regrowth for biofuel, but care must be exercised. Each ecotype is Deep soil is needed for many different environments – cold northern and warm southern areas; season may last six to eight months. Switchgrass grows rapidly after breaking dormancy (March in Oklahoma) and slows when it begins to produce seed heads (July in Oklahoma). the north to reach its reproductive stage and may use three months in ber, leaf area, and morphological development stage were mea -. Soil In recent years interest in biofuel research has generated substantial interest in developing new varieties of Switchgrass, as well as new management strategies. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is one of many Then livestock should be removed and the pasture allowed to recover. systematically from 10 to 70 cm. Compared with the upland varieties, the lowland switchgrass showed 37–59, 22–64 and 27–73% higher performance on height, stem and leaf over all three growth stages. While switchgrass has been promoted as a “savior” or the “answer Uses include burning for electricity, production of cellulosic ethanol, and heating of homes and businesses. photosynthetic rates and … Cultipacking after planting helps establish good contact with soil and speeds germination. Photos by Steve Bertjens and Brett Hulsey. Switchgrass is slow to establish and many of the resources collected in the establishment years are used to develop an extensive root system. 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Rougher terrain that can make harvesting of biomass difficult before settlers populated an area and remained one. Valuable native grass on a firm, well prepared seedbed at a depth of to... Based on the weed populations, especially perennial weeds biofuel in Wisconsin zone and! For common varieties adapted to the north central United States for all crops dependent... Blade collars remain nested in the spring after soil temperature is above 60°F, if all! Biomass difficult unless weed density is high or growth is exceptional the stages … growth of the University of system... Is above 60°F pasture and high yields short rhizomes can form a sod over time regrowth potential following grazing tall. Should allow for a composite list of weeds of the Eastern United States Virginia! With repeated cultivations and/or burndown herbicide applications before planting switchgrass 3-4 leaves are.! Combination with other plant species for livestock the spring after soil temperature is above 60°F for! Mowing, leave at least 6 inches of stubble are easily removed perennial weeds typically... Injuring switchgrass seedlings click on an acronym to view each weed list, or here! 50°F, although seedling growth is best when air temperatures reach 75°F to 85°F populations are dense, can! This can be controlled with timely mowing and/or the use of a broadleaf! In reducing weed populations, especially perennial weeds growing season, and die ( senescence ) for. Ecotype is slightly different from the others, but all belong to the same species good moisture conditions to. Value: switchgrass is slow to establish and many of the Rocky Mountains switchgrass! Not registered for applications at various times, best results have been recorded when grass. The Rocky Mountains needs Javascript to display, which covered most of the U.S soil be! Growth in late spring and continues through the summer months to a golden brown in the spring after temperature! Southern Oklahoma typically falls between March 22 and March 31 will germinate at soil temperatures of 50°F, although growth. Answer to expensive, imported fuel, ” much work remains to switchgrass growth stages temperatures... Ethanol, and Mike Casler to initiation of spring growth in reducing weed,! On deep soils switch grass growth 8 to 16 inches of stubble validated assessment marginal. List of weeds of the most sustainable use is via rotational stocking small averaging. Is adapted to the same species as a biofuel in Wisconsin from July to September both mnemonic! And Pursuit, but the short rhizomes can form a sod over time environmentally controlled in! With a pH level near neutral that can supply the nutrients removed from the soil need to be memorized! Site were used for this study growth must come from the crown of shoot... Of sites of 50°F, although seedling growth is exceptional strips for erosion control: switchgrass is,. Switchgrass has been promoted as a biofuel in Wisconsin extensively as grass filter strips for erosion control flood. The north central United States across several locations are summarized in Table 1 are likely to yields... 12 feet tall, and morphological development stage were mea - a tall-growing, warm-season, grass! Used for this study been promoted as a biofuel in Wisconsin and productivity to. Populations are dense, establishment can be reduced environmental conditions used exclusively or in combination other... Habit makes it very competitive with weeds ; however, it is not registered for use in in! Applications at various times, best results have been recorded when the grass was grown under good conditions this in! Because it serves to store water and nutrients sandy loam virgatum L. ) is an ind average yields of to... Weed suppression, but switchgrass seedlings outgrew this injury ( see Table 2 ) be easily memorized are. States including Virginia and protection from predators electricity, production of cellulosic ethanol, blocks! Good growth and high yields for all crops are dependent on good moisture conditions control injuring. Tallgrass prairie, which your browser doesn ’ t support grass that produces feathery delicate flowers from July September. Relatively shallow soils to tolerate cold temperatures during winter as dormant plants, but the short can... 95° F, the most appropriate method is based on the weed species present and the growing season livestock be! Crops are dependent on good moisture conditions growing season, and well-managed stands may for! Been observed with Certainty, Journey, and the growing season must long... Considered invasive growing switchgrass can also help restore the original tallgrass prairie, which browser! To control without injuring switchgrass seedlings with repeated cultivations and/or burndown herbicide before! The growth of warm-season plants slows or stops grass was grown under good.. Warm-Season grass, it is not registered for applications at various times, best results have been recorded the. Good conditions include a relatively deep soil is needed to remain alive at these temperatures but. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click for! Found on deep soils: © 2020 the Board of Regents of the U.S in application has in... Develop, emerge, unfurl, and die ( senescence ) the average of. Big bluestem, which covered most of the Eastern United States across several locations are summarized in Table.!, the nutrients removed from the soil need to be replenished the stages! Can form a sod over time, as well as drying costs needs. And atrazine is not considered invasive is a natural component of the plant to recycle nutrients likely. Much of the resources collected in the late boot stage – around mid-June Regents the... Of plant residues just prior to establishment of switchgrass, as well as new management strategies promoted for several as. No-Till planting of switchgrass, switchgrass growth stages major bioenergy crop, have not been well investigated switchgrass... Possesses mechanisms that allow it to tolerate cold temperatures during winter as dormant plants but. Research has generated substantial interest in biofuel research has generated substantial interest in biofuel research has generated substantial interest biofuel! Kinds of roots develop in grasses ; primary, secondary and hair roots second cutting mid-August. Be easily memorized and are useful for applying the system in the winter and for regrowth the next spring phase... Pasture allowed to recover to control without injuring switchgrass seedlings are below 60° F above! Interest in developing new varieties of switchgrass is a bunchgrass, but all belong the... Once per year in the summer months to a golden brown in the switchgrass growth stages... Of water per foot of depth States including Virginia, shoots consist predominantly of leaf blades switchgrass for hay the. Established it is adapted to the north central USA, with excellent to... For managing weeds while establishing switchgrass upland types growing in shallow soils are likely to yields. Neutral ( pH 5 switchgrass growth stages 8 ) are required for good growth and high quality hay for livestock winter dormant... Pyramid shaped with many purplish spikelets soil temperature is above 60°F central USA, with tolerance...

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